May 9, 2016
A catalytic converter is an emissions control device that converts toxic pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (oxidation or reduction). Catalytic converters are used with internal combustion engines fueled by either petrol (gasoline) or diesel—including lean-burn engines as well as kerosene heaters and stoves. The first widespread introduction of catalytic converters was in the United States automobile market. To comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's stricter regulation of exhaust emissions, gasoline-powered vehicles starting with the 1975 model year must be equipped with catalytic converters. These "two-way" converters combined oxygen with carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). In 1981, two-way catalytic converters were rendered obsolete by "three-way" converters that also reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx); However, two-way converters are still used for lean-burn engines. Although catalytic converters are most commonly applied to exhaust systems in automobiles, they are also used on electrical generators, forklifts, mining equipment, trucks, buses, locomotives and motorcycles. They are also used on some wood stoves to control emissions. This is usually in response to government regulation, either through direct environmental regulation or through health and safety regulations. Though conventional catalytic converters have their own advantages, it has its own drawbacks of being temperature dependent, with the catalytic action being good only at higher temperatures. It is prone to theft due to presence of noble metals which are very expensive. We look forward to eliminate these disadvantages with the development of a highly cost friendly converter. This project deals with use of photo catalytic reaction in catalytic converters to improve the efficiency as well as to reduce the production cost drastically by delimiting the use of noble metals.